How multiple sclerosis appears and develops

Chudinskaya Galina

Neurologist

Chudinskaya Galina

Experience 28 year

Neurologist, member of the Association for Interdisciplinary Medicine

Cruvelier 's disease or multiple sclerosis is a fairly common disease, which affects more than 2 million people in the world. It is called both the verdict and the curse of modern civilization. It is difficult to live with him, but with timely diagnosis and supportive therapy, symptoms of manifestation can be stopped and progression slowed down. A fulfilling life and a diagnosis of sclerosis are compatible concepts, despite the difficulties.

Symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis

At different stages of the disease, multiple sclerosis symptoms appear quite diverse. They can be wavy, periodically appearing and disappearing. In 50-55% of cases, there are disorders of the musculoskeletal system. It is characteristic of the early stage of the disease. From the very beginning and later, multiple sclerosis symptoms can show the following:

  • muscle weakness and impaired coordination of movements;
  • involuntary discharge of feces and urine (in severe cases);
  • fatigue, dizziness, vision problems;
  • decrease in intellectual abilities;
  • tingling and numbness of the limbs;
  • violation of speech function;
  • pain syndrome in the body;
  • paresis of the facial nerve, etc.

Causes of

Autoimmune diseases are difficult to diagnose in the early stages. Scientists still cannot unambiguously determine the reliable causes of sclerosis. In the medical field, there are three main factors of occurrence, among which are: genetic, behavioral and external. Regarding genetics, it should be clarified that the disease is not inherited from relatives, but under the coincidence of circumstances, the risk of getting a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis increases. To this can be added external factors in the form of poor ecology, radiation, infections, viruses and bacteria. Smoking, alcohol abuse, constant stress, high mental stress and poor nutrition add to the list of adverse ingredients for increasing the risk of illness. Early sclerosis is difficult to diagnose, but further quality of life depends on it.

Ways of infection

Multiple sclerosis belongs to the group of autoimmune diseases. This term refers to the process of replacing the organ parenchyma with denser connective tissue. It is impossible to get infected from another person. The bottom line is that the immune system perceives its own organs or tissues in the body as foreign, starting a fight with them. Multiple sclerosis is characterized by multifocal lesions of the brain and spinal cord. This disease does not apply to infections with viruses and bacteria, which makes it dangerous only for a sick person.

Risk factors

Signs of multiple sclerosis can appear at any age. Mostly women are exposed to it. Age ranges from 18 to 50 years old, although the frames can be shifted to either side. In children, sclerosis occurs in 2-10% of the total number of diagnoses. The risk factors for all people are the same. It can be:

  • the presence of diabetes, problems with the thyroid gland;
  • chronic inflammatory processes;
  • acute viral infections;
  • overweight.

Body mass index and sclerosis are interrelated. This was discovered in 2019 by American scientists. The research materials were published in EBioMedicine. It was found that a high content of lipids in the blood contributes to the development of a pathological condition and its complication. Multiple sclerosis is a multifactorial disease.

Complications

In severe or advanced cases, multiple sclerosis in women and men can be accompanied by complications. Often there are bursts of violent laughter and crying, tremors are observed. There may be pneumonia, urological infections, bedsores. The list also contains:

  • epileptic seizures;
  • paralysis in the limbs;
  • problems with the genitourinary system;
  • trigeminal neuralgia;
  • double vision (diplopia);
  • depressive conditions;
  • unsteadiness when walking;
  • Lermitt's symptom.

When to see a doctor

Depending on the stage of multiple sclerosis, the degree of manifestation of symptoms is different. The ability to identify the disease at the very beginning gives the patient a chance to relieve negative signs. As the pathological process develops, periods of exacerbation occur. If early sclerosis manifests symptoms in the form of severe fatigue, changes in the sensitivity of the limbs, a feeling of "goosebumps" on the skin, you need to consult a neurologist. If necessary, the examination can be supplemented by examinations by other specialized specialists. 

Preparing to visit a neurologist

There is no special preparation before admission to a neurologist. It is important what multiple sclerosis symptoms the patient exhibits. It is necessary to collect data to compile anamnesis and understand the clinical picture of the disease. If certain studies have already been conducted previously, their results should be provided. Depending on the stage of sclerosis, this information is of great diagnostic value. The neurologist must be notified of the list of medications for self-medication or with another doctor.

Diagnostics

Symptoms of multiple sclerosis in women and men are not always the same. Defining and recognizing the disease is difficult. Diagnostic tactics are based on clinical and anamnestic data. There are different types of this autoimmune disease in the medical classification. Getting a correct diagnosis takes time. The patient may have neurodegenerative amyotrophic sclerosis or remitting. Other types are also possible. Poser's diagnostic criteria help to determine whether multiple sclerosis is reliable or probable, depending on the number of exacerbations, the number of foci and clinical signs. A puncture of the spinal cord is possible. In our clinic in the Central Administrative District, all available methods are used for diagnostics. If necessary, an MRI scan of the brain and spinal cord is prescribed.

Treatment

It is necessary to treat multiple sclerosis in women in men with the definition of the underlying disease that led to its occurrence. The reasons can be on different planes. For example, subchondral sclerosis of the spine is radically different from multiple sclerosis. They have a different nature of occurrence. This is a pathology in the bone tissue of the articular surfaces. It is not an independent disease. For this reason, in order to eliminate subchondral sclerosis, it is necessary to find the root cause of its formation. The situation with the treatment of other forms of the disease is also difficult. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is another diagnosis that is not easy to determine due to the ability of pathology to disguise itself as other conditions. Medication and physiotherapy treatment is selected individually for each patient.

Home remedies

Treating sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases at home is a risk. At the initial stage, relief of the condition is possible, but this can also happen spontaneously. Treatment of sclerosis must be performed under the supervision of a neurologist.

Myths and Dangerous Misconceptions in Treatment

Multiple sclerosis in women and men is a sentence. This opinion is formed by those who are not familiar with the features of the disease. It all depends on the stage of sclerosis and the type. Many people, subject to the recommendations of doctors, lead a normal life. There are people who refuse treatment due to the inability to completely get rid of an autoimmune disease. Yes, it is impossible to overcome the diagnosis, but it is quite possible to control the degree of manifestation. Not all patients with multiple sclerosis develop symptoms intensely.

Among the myths there is one more. When a diagnosis is made, the spinal cord is punctured and analyzed for oligoclonal antibodies. There is a myth that the legs are taken away from this procedure. This is an absolute misconception, and puncture provides an 85-95% guarantee of correct diagnosis.

Prevention

It is possible to diagnose tuberous or lateral sclerosis, atherosclerosis and other types of the disease in the early stages. When the first symptoms appear, do not blame fatigue or overstrain. Especially when problems with limbs and vision are noted. A consultation with a neurologist and other specialized specialists will help to exclude or confirm the diagnosis. It can be lateral sclerosis or any other, depending on the symptoms of manifestation. The main thing is to prevent persistent gross neurological deficit in the first 5 years of the disease. In this case, sclerosis has an increased chance of a favorable course.

How to make an appointment with a neurologist

You can make an appointment with the specialists of Medicina JSC (Academician Roitberg's clinic) by phone: +7 (495) 995-00-33 by filling out the feedback form on the website or at the clinic's administrators: 2nd Tverskoy-Yamskaya per., 10 (metro Mayakovskaya, Novoslobodskaya, Belorusskaya).

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