Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum that can disrupt various bodily functions and cause death. The cause of inflammation is a bacterial infection of a different nature: E. coli, staphylococcus, etc. Sometimes inflammation occurs due to a specific type of microflora, for example, due to mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Varieties of peritonitis, several classifications
This inflammation has different types. By origin, primary (infection by blood and lymph), secondary (due to surgical diseases, injuries), as well as tertiary (postoperative) peritonitis are distinguished.
Depending on the characteristics of the spread, a local or widespread variant of inflammation is also isolated. The nature of the exudate is also taken into account, here they are called: fibrous, purulent, hemorrhagic, biliary, fecal and serous peritonitis. Exudate is understood as fluid (mass) that has entered the abdominal cavity and caused inflammation.
Phases and stages of development of peritonitis
The main symptoms of serous peritonitis and other manifestations are similar. It is more important to understand the phases - there are three of them:
- reactive. Observed within a day or twelve hours, depending on the type of problem. At this stage, all body functions are mobilized to help correct the situation;
- toxic. Again, depending on the type, it stretches for 12-24 or 24-48 hours. At this stage, inflammation intensifies, the infection spreads more strongly, dysfunction of various organs is observed (multiple organ dysfunction);
- terminal. Starts within 24-48 hours from the beginning of the processes. It can last up to 72 hours. At this stage, multiple organ failure occurs.
The last stage, in the absence of professional help, leads to the death of the patient - that is why it is extremely important to catch the symptoms of peritonitis as early as possible and go to the hospital and call an ambulance.
Peritonitis as a complication of various diseases
The causes of peritonitis are often due to the complication of various diseases, for example:
- perforated ulcer;
- intestinal obstruction;
- acute appendicitis or cholecystitis;
- pathology in the field of gynecology;
- trauma to the abdominal cavity;
- infringement of a hernia, etc.
Obviously, the prevention of peritonitis is in many respects the control of existing diseases, regular visits to the doctor and an attentive attitude to all suspicious symptoms.
How peritonitis manifests itself: symptoms, features
The symptoms may vary depending on the phase. So, at the first stage (reactive phase), the symptoms of peritonitis are as follows:
- stomach ache. They become stronger when a person inhales or begins to move. It is more comfortable for the patient to lie in the fetal position or on the back;
- an increase in temperature (up to 38 degrees and above) is a symptom of intoxication;
- weakness, irritability, agitation - an obvious change in state;
- tachycardia, increased heart rate (100-120 beats), as well as more frequent breathing;
- nausea, vomiting - these symptoms are less common.
With the development of the toxic phase, the patient's condition becomes even worse - there are signs of severe intoxication, bloating, severe pain, pallor. If during the first phase the pressure could increase, then at this stage it often decreases. The pulse is still frequent, and vomiting of stagnant masses often begins.
The terminal phase of acute peritonitis involves the depletion of all body reserves. Clouding of consciousness begins, the skin often changes color to yellow, the temperature drops below normal. The patient is often not in himself, does not react to surrounding stimuli.
Diagnosis of peritonitis
It is very important that the diagnosis of peritonitis is carried out on time and correctly. To begin with, the doctor conducts palpation to determine muscle tension and other symptoms, for example, the special nature of pain when performing certain movements. If necessary, rectal and / or vaginal examinations are performed.
Additionally, patients with peritonitis are prescribed general and biochemical blood tests, general urinalysis, ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, X-ray, laparoscopy, laparotomy (diagnostic). The latter study involves the surgical opening of the abdominal cavity. The severity of the patient's condition is determined using special scales.
Treatment of peritonitis
In the treatment of peritonitis, a surgical method is used - the operation is usually performed urgently to minimize the risks. In its process, exudate is removed from the abdominal cavity, and then all internal organs are checked to understand what was the cause of peritonitis in a particular situation.
After finding out the cause and correcting it, the abdominal cavity is washed with special solutions, the wound is sutured (with or without drainage).
Then comes the recovery, rehabilitation period. At this time, the patient is in the hospital, he is treated with antibiotics, pain relievers are given, drugs that increase immunity. If the patient has additional problems (for example, with the heart), special supportive medications are prescribed.
Treatment of peritonitis with folk / home remedies is unacceptable in any form! A patient with symptoms of peritonitis requires immediate hospitalization and surgery, otherwise it will be fatal.
Questions and answers on "peritonitis"
The most common cause of peritonitis is...
Violation of the membranes of the intestine or stomach, when their contents enter the abdominal cavity and inflammation begins.
Does peritonitis happen in children?
Yes, people of all ages have it. Moreover, in children, the disease progresses faster, and therefore requires even more attention and immediate help.
Is peritonitis fatal?
Without urgent medical intervention, peritonitis is a condition that will lead to the death of the patient.
How to relieve symptoms of peritonitis with home remedies?
No way - you shouldn't. See a doctor immediately.
Knowing the clinical guidelines for peritonitis, as well as the danger of this inflammation, do not neglect your own safety and the safety of loved ones.